Fannie Bay Gaol operated as Her Majesty’s Gaol and Labour Prison from 1883 until 1979.
The original buildings comprised two blocks with 16 cells, a washhouse and a kitchen. A stone infirmary was constructed in 1887 and remains on site. In 1920 cells were constructed for women prisoners. By late 1950s a remand section, watch tower and maximum security wings had been constructed. The gaol contains rare gallows constructed for the last two hangings in the Northern Territory. During WWII, prisoners were released and the gaol used by the Army and Air Force. The integrity and severity of the precinct combine to convey the oppressive atmosphere of the institution. The gaol is highly valued for its penal, legal, medical and social history.